Artificial intelligence (AI) technology is a rapidly growing field that has created new opportunities to progress on critical issues in many areas of our daily lives, including healthcare, education, entertainment, and transportation. In some cases, AI with its own unique characteristics and capabilities may do things more accurately or methodically than humans. Here’re four types of artificial intelligence that have captured the attention of researchers, engineers, and the public. For example, machine learning, a type of AI, has enabled engineers to build incredible devices such as AI robots and self-driving cars, speech or image converters, and forecast market trends. In this article, we will discuss what exactly artificial intelligence is and the types of AI.
What is exactly Artificial Intelligence?
Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science that focuses on creating machines that can perform tasks that typically require human intelligence like reasoning, learning, perception, and problem-solving. Artificial Intelligence is a process of making a computer-controlled robot that thinks intelligently or making software or a computer that performs specific tasks that require human intelligence. No doubt, AI refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines. Different AI branches involve the development of intelligent machines that can perform tasks efficiently that typically require human intervention. Different branches of artificial intelligence are constantly evolving, and researchers are continuously exploring new ways to create more advanced forms of AI robots and machines.
The 4 types of AI
There are four main types of artificial intelligence, based on their own unique characteristics and capabilities. These different stages of artificial intelligence vary on the level of intelligence and ability to learn. In this section, we will discuss the 4 types of AI that are designed to show the progress and development of AI from simple to complex. Criteria for each branch of artificial intelligence are different and all AI types reflect the capabilities and limitations of AI in terms of their use and development. Let’s discuss each branch of artificial intelligence in detail.
Reactive machines are the simplest type of AI that has no memory or ability to learn from past experiences and they cannot predict future outcomes. This basic branch of artificial intelligence can only react to the current situation, based on pre-programmed rules or the information they are receiving at that moment.
Reactive machines are unable to change their behavior based on experience and perform specific tasks just like an input always gives the same output. Reactive AI is programmed to respond to specific situations and it is reliable and works well for tasks such as playing chess or driving a car.
An example of a reactive AI system is when Deep Blue, IBM’s chess-playing computer, the computer that beat the world champion in the game of Go, in the late 1990s. Deep Blue could identify its own and its opponent’s pieces on the chessboard to make predictions based on what moves could be next for both players, but it does not have the memory capacity to learn from past mistakes and to inform future decisions.
Limited Memory AI is the next stage of AI, also known as "Machine Learning" AI, that can store and use past experiences to predict future events. Unlike reactive machines, Limited memory AI can learn from previous data, and monitor specific situations over time based on both past and present moment data. But limited memory doesn’t save this data into the AI’s memory.
This type of AI is used in weather prediction, recommendation systems, fraud detection in financial transactions, and medical diagnosis. One of the best examples of limited memory AI is the way that self-driving cars use to perceive other cars on the road for their speed, direction, and adjacency. This programmed information helps the car to know the traffic lights, signs, crosswalks, curves, and bumps in the road and decide when to change sides so that it does not get hit or cut off by another car.
Theory of Mind
Theory of mind is the type of artificial intelligence that does not exist currently. There aren’t any real-world examples yet of this AI branch because it will be built in the future. Theory of Mind AI is still in the experimental stages and is being programmed for use in social robotics, virtual assistants, customer service chatbots, and other fields such as healthcare, psychology, and education.
If developed it could have the potential to understand the world, human emotions, thoughts, and beliefs. In the future, the theory of mind machines could be able to predict behavior and understand intentions, as they can interpret human behavior, and respond accordingly.
Self-Aware is the most advanced type of artificial intelligence that does not exist yet. The Self-aware machines would be the most evolved type of AI and can sense self, understand their own existence, and have consciousness as same as human beings.
This type of AI is currently the subject of much debate and speculation among researchers in the AI field because there is still so much to uncover about memory, learning, and the human brain’s intelligence.
For example, it would have a sense of self in such a way, “I’m feeling hungry” becomes “I know I am feeling hungry” or “I want to eat fried fish because it is my favorite food.” Self-Aware goes a step beyond understanding feelings and being able to sense or interpret others’ feelings.